Hundreds mourn as India awaits trial
Six men, including one who claims to be a juvenile aged 17, have been detained and are accused of her rape and murder. Police have drawn up a 1000-page charge sheet which they will present in court on Thursday.
Hundreds of people joined the family by the Ganges in Bharauli, 950 kilometres east of Delhi. The cortege took three hours to cover the eight kilometres to the river from the family's ancestral home because of the crowds, the Times of India reported. India's often ruthless and sensationalist media had agreed to stay away.
The victim's boyfriend is likely to give crucial evidence during what is expected to be a fast-tracked trial.
Delhi police say hundreds of women have applied for gun licences since the murder.
''Lots of women have been contacting us asking for information about how to obtain licences. Any woman has a threat against her. It's not surprising. There are fearless predators out there,'' said Abhijeet Singh, of the campaign group Guns For India.
As the ramifications of the crime continued to reverberate throughout India a chart-topping rapper known for his sexually explicit lyrics became embroiled in the growing campaign against sexism and misogyny.
Yo Yo Honey Singh's New Year's Eve concert in Delhi was cancelled after an online campaign which highlighted lyrics allegedly inciting abuse of women.
His 2007 track Prostitute refers to him having violent sex with a woman after he forces her to ''dance naked'' and includes the line: ''You will scream and run but where can you go … I will take your life.''
There are also fears the attack will lead to further restrictions on women.
Elders in Matapa, in the poor state of Bihar, have banned the use of mobile phones for teenage girls and warned them against wearing ''sexy'' clothes. They claim the move will check rape cases and restore ''social order''.
One MP in the north-western state of Rajasthan called for a ban on skirts for schoolgirls to keep them away from ''men's lustful gazes''.
The order in Matapa was issued after a formal meeting with villagers, council officials and teachers on Sunday. ''Almost every villager pressed us to ban the mobile phones use by the schoolgirls saying they are proving quite dangerous for the society and corrupting traditional values,'' the local village council head, Sushma Singh, said on Tuesday.
Protesters were angered by the news. ''Our sister will have died in vain if all that is happening after is our fear is greater and ladies are more unfree,'' said Deepti Anand, a 21-year-old student in Delhi.
Guardian News & Media, Agence France-Presse
According to USA Today reporter Kevin Johnson "no other major category of crime – not murder, assault or robbery – has generated a more serious challenge of the credibility of national crime statistics" than rape.
A United Nations statistical report compiled from government sources showed that more than 250,000 cases of male-female rape or attempted rape were recorded by police annually. The reported data covered 65 countries.
In some jurisdictions, male-female rape is the only form of rape counted in the statistics.
Under- and over-reporting
Under reportingAccording to the American Medical Association (1995), sexual violence, and rape in particular, is considered the most under-reported violent crime.
The most common reasons given by victims for not reporting rapes are the belief that it is a personal or private matter, and that they fear reprisal from the assailant. A 2007 government report in England says "Estimates from research suggest that between 75 and 95 percent of rape crimes are never reported to the police."
Traditional (male-female) focused rape-related advocacy groups have suggested several tactics to encourage the reporting of sexual assaults, most of which aim at lessening the psychological trauma, often suffered by female rape victims following their assault by male rapists.
Many police departments now assign female police officers to deal with rape cases. Advocacy groups also argue for the preservation of the victim's privacy during the legal process; it is standard practice among mainstream American news media not to divulge the names of alleged rape victims in news reports but this practice is becoming increasingly controversial due to well publicized cases of false rape accusations.
Traditional rape-related advocacy groups are also beginning to support male-male rape victims as well as female-male rape victims. Other advocacy groups that support male victims of female rape encourage recognition of female-male rape as rape rather than as a 'love affair', a 'relationship', or as a beneficial form of sex 'education'.
However, female-male and female-female rape is rarely recognized as a statistically significant form of rape despite research indicating otherwise. Thus reporting rape by females remains difficult or impossible especially in jurisdictions where rape by a female is not considered a crime or where the false perception persists that rape of a male by a female is impossible.
False reportingFBI reports consistently put the number of "unfounded" rape accusations around 8%.
However, "unfounded" is not synonymous with "false" allegation.largest study, published in 2005, was based on 2,643 sexual assault cases and found 3% of false reports.
A much criticized 1994 study of 109 rape complaints made between 1978 and 1987 found 41% of false allegations.
A 2006 review of studies of false reporting in the United States, New Zealand and the United Kingdom concluded:
"Two conclusions can be drawn from this review of literature on the prevalence of false rape allegations. First, many of the studies of false allegations have adopted unreliable or untested research methodologies and, so we cannot discern with any degree of certainty the actual rate of false allegations. A key component in judging the reliability of research in this area relates to the criteria used to judge an allegation to be false. Some studies use entirely unreliable criteria, while others provide only limited information on how rates are measured. The second conclusion that can be drawn from the research is that the police continue to misapply the no- crime or unfounding criteria and in so doing it would appear that some officers have fixed views and expectations about how genuine rape victims should react to their victimisation. The qualitative research also suggests that some officers continue to exhibit an unjustified scepticism of rape complainants, while others interpret such things as lack of evidence or complaint withdrawal as ‘‘proof’’ of a false allegation. Such findings suggest that there are inadequacies in police awareness of the dynamics and impact of sexual victimisation and this further reinforces the importance of training and education. However, the exact extent to which police officers incorrectly label allegations as false is difficult to discern."
UN Rape StatisticsThis list indicates the number of, and per capita cases of recorded rape. It does not include cases of rape which go unreported, or which are not recorded.
Nor does it specify whether recorded means reported, brought to trial, or convicted. Nor does it take the different definition of rape around the world into account.
|Total count||Rate per 100,000 population|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||16||15||30.9||28.6|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||66||87||50||60||36||54||28||60.8||80.0||45.9||55.0||33.0||49.4||25.6|
|Trinidad and Tobago||305||334||259||317||236||247||23.3||25.4||19.6||23.9||17.7||18.5|
|Bolivia (Plurinational State of)||1137||1137||1437||1596||1989||2587||12.4||12.2||15.2||16.6||20.4||26.1|
|United States of America||93883||95089||94347||94472||92610||90750||89241||84767||32.2||32.3||31.8||31.5||30.6||29.8||29.0||27.3|
|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China||70||92||99||96||107||105||136||112||1.0||1.4||1.5||1.4||1.6||1.5||1.9||1.6|
|Republic of Korea||5899||6321||12.7||13.5|
|Syrian Arab Republic||131||97||135||112||125||156||0.7||0.5||0.7||0.6||0.6||0.8|
|United Arab Emirates||44||52||62||72||1.3||1.4||1.5||1.5|
|Republic of Moldova||272||297||280||268||281||306||264||368||7.0||7.8||7.4||7.2||7.7||8.4||7.3||10.3|
|United Kingdom (England and Wales)||13272||14013||14443||13774||12673||13096||15084||15934||25.1||26.4||27.0||25.6||23.4||24.0||27.5||28.8|
|United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)||364||360||345||447||389||368||422||498||21.4||21.0||20.0||25.7||22.1||20.7||23.6||27.7|
|United Kingdom (Scotland)||794||900||975||922||908||821||884||15.7||17.7||19.1||18.0||17.7||15.9||17.0|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||39||40||44||35||29||46||1.0||1.1||1.2||0.9||0.8||1.2|
|The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia||93||103||4.6||5.0|
United StatesKoss, Gidycz & Wi published a study in 1987 where they interviewed approximately 6,000 college students on 32 college campuses nationwide. They asked several questions covering a wide range of behaviors. From this study 15% of college women answered “yes” to questions about whether they experienced something that met the definition of rape. 12% of women answered “yes” to questions about whether they experienced something that met the definition of attempted rape
In 1995 the CDC replicated part of this study. They examined rape only, and did not look at attempted rape. They found that 20% of approximately 5,000 women on 138 college campuses experienced rape during the course of their lifetime.
In 2000, the National Institute of Justice and the Bureau of Justice statistics published a study called The Sexual Victimization of College Women based on a 1996 - 1997 survey.  At page 11, it can be seen that 3.1% of undergraduate women reported surviving rape or attempted rape during a 6-7 month academic year. Exhibit 7, page 18 of the report suggests that 10.1% of college women reported experiencing rape prior to entering college. 10.9% reported attempted rape prior to college.
In a different section of the report, the authors speculate about whether statistics during an academic year generalize to an entire college experience. For a full discussion, read more on page 10 of the report, stating that "... the percentage of completed or attempted rape victimization among women in higher educational institutions might climb to between one-fifth and one-quarter" and further acknowledging in the corresponding footnote, #18, that "These projections are suggestive. To assess accurately the victimization risk for women throughout a college career, longitudinal research following a cohort of female students across time is needed."
Other studies of the annual incidence of rape find it to be closer to 5% (compared to the 3% in the DOJ study). For example, Mohler-Kuo, Dowdall, Koss & Weschler (2004) found in a study of approximately 25,000 college women nationwide that 4.7% experienced rape or attempted rape during a single academic year. This study did not measure lifetime incidence of rape or attempted rape. Similarly, Kilpatrick, Resnick, Ruggiero, Conoscenti, & McCauley (2007) found in a study of 2,000 college women nationwide that 5.2% experienced rape every year.
Other research has found that about 80,000 American children are sexually abused each year. It has been estimated that one in six American women has been or will be sexually assaulted during her life. Largely because of child and prison rape, approximately ten percent of reported rape victims are male.
According to United States Department of Justice document Criminal Victimization in the United States, there were overall 191,670 victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2005.1 of 6 U.S. women and 1 of 33 U.S. men have experienced an attempted or completed rape. (according to Colorado Coalition Against Sexual Assault) The U.S. Department of Justice compiles statistics on crime by race, but only between and among people categorized as black or white. The statistics for whites include Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites combined. There were 194,270 white and 17,920 black victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2006.
However, the report does give a note that for the percentages of white-on-black or black-on-white rape, and the estimate of total number of black victims, the statistic is based on 10 or fewer sample cases. Some types of rape are excluded from official reports altogether; the FBI's definition for example excludes all rapes except forcible rapes of females, a significant number of rapes go unreported even when they are included as reportable rapes, and a significant number of rapes reported to the police do not advance to prosecution.
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics states that 91% of rape victims are female and 9% are male, and 99% of rapists are male. Denov (2004) states that societal responses to the issue of female perpetrators of sexual assault "point to a widespread denial of women as potential sexual aggressors that could work to obscure the true dimensions of the problem."
According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, the adjusted per-capita victimization rate of rape has declined from about 2.4 per 1000 people (age 12 and above) in 1980 to about 0.4 per 1000 people, a decline of about 85%. But other government surveys, such as the Sexual Victimization of College Women study, critique the NCVS on the basis it includes only those acts perceived as crimes by the victim, and report a higher victimization rate.
RAINN asserts that from 2000–2005, 59% of rapes were not reported to law enforcement. One factor relating to this is the misconception that most rapes are committed by strangers.According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 38% of victims were raped by a friend or acquaintance, 28% by "an intimate" and 7% by another relative, and 26% were committed by a stranger to the victim. About four out of ten sexual assaults take place at the victim's own home.
Drug use, especially alcohol, is frequently involved in rape. In 47% of rapes, both the victim and the perpetrator had been drinking. In 17%, only the perpetrator had been. 7% of the time, only the victim had been drinking. Rapes where neither the victim nor the perpetrator had been drinking were 29% of all rapes.
Contrary to widespread belief, rape outdoors is rare. Over two thirds of all rapes occur in someone's home. 30.9% occur in the perpetrators' homes, 26.6% in the victims' homes and 10.1% in homes shared by the victim and perpetrator. 7.2% occur at parties, 7.2% in vehicles, 3.6% outdoors and 2.2% in bars.
According to a statistical average over the past 5 years, about 10% of all rapes or sexual assaults in the United States are never reported to the authorities. For college students, the figure is 5%, noted in the Fisher, Cullen and Turner study cited above.
Despite a decline of 60% since 1993, the US still has a relatively high rate of rape when compared to other developed countries.
As well as the large number of rapes that go unreported, only 25% of reported rapes result in arrest. Many rape kits are not tested.
SwedenSweden has the highest incidence of reported rapes in Europe and one of the highest in the world. According to a 2009 study, there were 46 incidents of rape per 100,000 residents. This figure is twice that of the UK which reports 23 cases, and four times that of the other Nordic countries, Germany and France. The figure is up to 20 times the figure for certain countries in southern and eastern Europe.
The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention claims that it is not "possible to evaluate and compare the actual levels of violent crimes... between countries", but that in any case the high numbers are explained by a broader legal definition of rape than in other countries, and an effort to register all suspected and repeated rapes. It asserts that comparisons based on victim surveys place Sweden at an average level among European nations.
United KingdomAccording to a news report on BBC One presented in 12 November 2007, there were 85,000 women raped in the UK in the previous year, equating to about 230 cases every day. The 2006-07 British Crime Survey reports that 1 in every 200 women suffered from rape in that period. It also showed that only 800 people were convicted of rape crimes that same year, meaning that less than 1 in every 100 rape survivors were able to convict their attacker.
According to a study in 2009 by the NSPCC on young people aged between 13-18, a third of girls and 16% of boys have experienced sexual violence and that as many as 250,000 teenage girls are suffering from abuse at any one time.
12% of boys and 3% of girls reported committing sexual violence against their partners.
Democratic Republic of the CongoIn eastern Congo, the prevalence and intensity of rape and other sexual violence is described as the worst in the world.
It is estimated that there are as many as 200,000 surviving rape victims living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today.
Rape in the Democratic Republic of Congo has frequently been described as a "weapon of war" by commentators. Louise Nzigire, a local social worker, states that “this violence was designed to exterminate the population.” Nzigire observes that rape has been a "cheap, simple weapon for all parties in the war, more easily obtainable than bullets or bombs."
South AfricaOne in three of the 4,000 women questioned by the Community of Information, Empowerment and Transparency said they had been raped in the past year.
South Africa has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world. In a related survey conducted among 1,500 schoolchildren in the Soweto township, a quarter of all the boys interviewed said that 'jackrolling', a term for gang rape, was fun.
More than 25% of a sample of 1,738 South African men from the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces admitted when anonymously questioned to raping someone; of those, nearly half said they had raped more than one person, according to a non-peer reviewed policy brief issued by the Medical Research Council (MRC).
Several news publications extrapolated these results to the rest of the South African population.
The humanitarian news organization IRIN claims that an estimated 500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa, but does not provide a source for this figure.
More than 67,000 cases of rape and sexual assaults against children were reported in 2000 in South Africa.
Child welfare groups believe that the number of reported incidents represents merely a fraction of the actual number of incidents.
A belief common to South Africa holds that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure a man of HIV or AIDS. South Africa has the highest number of HIV-positive citizens in the world. According to official figures, circa 11% of South Africans are infected with the virus. Edith Kriel, a social worker who helps child victims in the Eastern Cape, said: "Child abusers are often relatives of their victims – even their fathers and providers."
According to University of Durban-Westville anthropology lecturer and researcher Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala, the myth that sex with a virgin is a cure for AIDS is not confined to South Africa. "Fellow AIDS researchers in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Nigeria have told me that the myth also exists in these countries and that it is being blamed for the high rate of sexual abuse against young children."
OtherMost rape research and reporting to date has been limited to male-female forms of rape. Research on male-male and female-male is beginning to be done. However, almost no research has been done on female-female rape, though women can be charged with rape.
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 Further reading
- Macdonalds, J. (2007). Rape. In The World Book Encyclopedia. United States of America: World Book Inc.
- Rape (2007). In The New Encyclopædia Britannica (Vol. 9). Chicago, Il.: Britannica.
- Howard, Angela & Kavenik Francis. (2000). Handbook of American Women's History. CA: Sage Publications Inc.
- AMSOSA UK Rape Stats
- FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (non-uniform sources and discriminates against male rape victims)
- Probability statistics compiled by NCPA from US Department of Justice statistics October 1999
- Statistics from RAINN
- National Center for Victims of Crime: Sexual Assault
- National Center for Victims of Crime: Acquaintance Rape
- National Center for Victims of Crime: Male Rape
It is estimated that a woman born in South Africa has a greater chance of being raped than learning how to read.
One in three of the 4,000 women questioned by the Community of Information, Empowerment and Transparency said they had been raped in the past year.
A survey conducted among 1,500 schoolchildren in the Soweto township, a quarter of all the boys interviewed said that 'jackrolling', a term for gang rape, was fun.
More than 25% of South African men questioned in a survey admitted to raping someone; of those, nearly half said they had raped more than one person, according to a new study conducted by the Medical Research Council (MRC).
It is estimated that 500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa.
A 2010 study led by the government-funded Medical Research Foundation says that in Gauteng province, home to South Africa's most populous city of Johannesburg, more than 37 percent of men said they had raped a woman. Nearly 7 percent of the 487 men surveyed said they had participated in a gang rape.
South Africa has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world with more than 67,000 cases of rape and sexual assaults against children reported in 2000.
Welfare groups believe that the number of unreported incidents could be up to 10 times that number. The largest increase in attacks was against children under seven. A number of high-profile baby rapes since 2001 (including the fact that they required extensive reconstructive surgery to rebuild urinary, genital, abdominal, or tracheal systems) increased the need to address the problem socially and legally. In 2001, a 9-month-old baby was raped by six men, aged between 24 and 66, after the infant had been left unattended by her teenage mother. A 4-year-old girl died after being raped by her father. A 14-month-old girl was raped by her two uncles. In February 2002, an 8-month-old infant was reportedly gang raped by four men. One has been charged. The infant has required extensive reconstructive surgery. The 8-month-old infant's injuries were so extensive, increased attention on prosecution has occurred.
A common myth holds that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure a man of HIV or AIDS. Child abusers are often relatives of their victims - even their fathers and providers.
According to researcher Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala, the myth that is not confined to South Africa. Fellow AIDS researchers in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Nigeria have told me that the myth also exists in these countries and that it is being blamed for the high rate of sexual abuse against young children.
The sad reality is that rape statistics for South Africa in particular have gone up instead of done over the past 5 years.
This is on trend with the rest of the world. But is this a trend we want to see grow ? In South Africa in 2006 there were close 55 000 reported rape cases. There are an estimated 450 000 rape cases that go unreported. Here is some more statistical information on rape worldwide.
The following information is from the Crime Statistics for South Africa 2010:
With regard to sexual offences, it was already stated in the Annual Report of the SAPS for 2008/2009 (p 4) that Fully valid comparisons pertaining to the sexual offences will only become possible after the period 1 October 2009 to 31 March 2010. However, it can be accepted that the comparisons of figures for the period 1 April 2009 31 March 2010 with those recorded from 1 April 2008 31 March 2009 will be much more valid than those in the 2008/2009 Annual Report, which indicated a 10,1% increase. This report for 2009/2010 indicates a ratio decrease of -4,4%, from 144.8 sexual offences per 100 000 of the RSA population in 2008/2009 to 138.5 sexual offences per 100 000 in 2009/2010. This represents a decrease of 2 182 cases, from 70 514 to 68 332. The main reason why historical comparisons between these figures of 70 514 and 68 332 cases and the figures of previous years are extremely difficult and even impossible, is that sexual offences as presently defined differ substantially from those recorded in the past prior to December 2007. These now include a widened definition of rape (encompassing the formerly exclusive concept of vaginal rape, as well as adding oral and anal rape and thus also male rape which previously fell under the category of indecent assault). However, it then goes further to add a whole range of offences which never previously formed part of rape or indecent assault such as sex work, pornography, public indecency and human trafficking. The addition of these sexual offences mainly generated by police action (at least 13 000 cases), makes it impossible to compare the present sexual offences figures as portrayed in table 1 with figures for rape and indecent assault recorded in the past. If all sexual offence cases registered in 2009/2010 which would have qualified as rape and indecent assault cases before 16 December 2007 are identified and counted, the result adds up to 55 097 cases. If this figure is compared to the last combined rape and indecent assault figures recorded for 2006/2007, which stood at 61 984 cases, a decrease of -11,1% is actually noted. This implies an average annual decrease of -3,7% from 2006/2007 to 2009/2010.
In future (from 2010/2011) a special effort will have to be made to separate sexual offences between those reported by the public (which basically comprise rape or sexual penetration and indecent assault) and sexual offences which are generated by police action (such as those relating to sex work or prostitution and pornography), in order to depict the figures separately
220.127.116.11 Crimes Against Women and Children The number of counts of social contact or violent crime committed against adult women and children of both genders under the age of 18 (meaning up to the age of 17 years, 364 days, 23 hours and 59 minutes) are provided in tables 4 and 5 respectively. These tables indicate significant (actually shocking) increases of 42,3%, 36,1% and 14,5% respectively in the incidence of attempted murder, all sexual offences and murder against children between 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The reader should be aware that the increases in attempted murder and murder against children are indeed real, but that these are based on relatively small numerical values. Attempted murder against children increased by 331 cases, from 782 to 1 113 and murder by 122 cases, from 843 to 965. The 36,1% increase in sexual offences against children, as well as the 19,8% increase in sexual offences against adult women (which represent 7 276 cases committed against children and 5 969 cases against adult women) are mainly due to an age and gender attribute problem that occurred during the implementation of the new sexual offences codes on the Crime Administration System (CAS) during December 2007. Basically there had been a period during which the gender and age attributes applicable to sexual offences were not recorded, because these were not compulsory fields on the CAS. This was only rectified during August 2009. It can be accepted that at least a proportion of the increase in sexual offences against children and women is indeed real and can in all probability be linked to a new awareness of sexual offences accompanying the implementation of the sexual offences legislation at the end of 2007. Government and the public should take note of the serious increase in murder, attempted murder and sexual offences against children, as well as the increase in sexual offences against adult women. It should also be emphasized that according to various previous analyses pertaining to crimes against children according to age, most of the crimes are committed against children between 15 17 years old (see e.g. the 2008/2009 SAPS Annual Report, pp 13 14). These indicated that 54,9% of murders, 59,6% of attempted murders, 70,8% of assaults GBH, 63,1% of common assaults and 39,5% of sexual offences committed against children were committed against those in the age group of 15 17 years. However, it is disturbing to notice that in the case of the most prevalent crime against children, namely the 27 417 cases of sexual offences against children, 60,0% were committed against children below the age of 15 years. It is even more worrying to note that 29,4% of these sexual offences involved children aged 0 10 years. (Note: This is disgusting, sickening, sad, enraging, 0-10 years ? 29.4 % ??? )
The following is an updated raw figure total of REPORTED sexual related crimes from the SAPS 2010 total Crime statistics - I hilight "REPORTED" as the majority of rapes go unreported. The SAPS say that it has decreased by 3.1% - however this decrease is not significant given the sheer numbers.
2003/4 - 66 079
2004/5 - 69 117
2005/6 - 68 076
2006/7 - 65 201
2007/8 - 63 818
2008/9 - 70 514
2009/10 - 68 332
In 1995, 354,670 women were the victims of a rape or sexual assault. (NationalCrime Victimization Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 1996.)
Over the last two years, more than 787,000 women were the victim of a rape or sexual assault. (National Crime Victimization Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S.Department of Justice, 1996.)
The FBI estimates that 72 of every 100,000 females in the United States wereraped last year. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Statistics, 1996.)
Approximately 28% of victims are raped by husbands or boyfriends, 35% by acquaintances, and 5% by other relatives. (Violence against Women, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Justice, 1994)
The FBI estimates that only 37% of all rapes are reported to the police. U.S. Justice Department statistics are even lower, with only 26% of all rapes or attempted rapes being reported to law enforcement officials.
In 1994-1995, only 251,560 rapes and sexual assaults were reported to law enforcement officials -- less than one in every three. (National Crime Victimization Survey, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 1996.)
An overwhelming majority of rape service agencies believe that public education about rape, and expanded counseling and advocacy services for rape victims, would be effective in increasing the willingness of victims to report rapes to the police. (Rape in America, 1992, National Victim Center with Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center.)
One of every four rapes take place in a public area or in a parking garage.
31% of female victims reported that the offender was a stranger.
68% of rapes occur between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.
At least 45% of rapists were under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
In 29% of rapes, the offender used a weapon.
In 47% of rapes, the victim sustained injuries other than rape injuries.
75% of female rape victims require medical care after the attack.
Approximately one-third of all juvenile victims of sexual abuse cases are children younger than 6 years of age. (Violence and the Family, Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family, 1996.)
According to the Justice Department, one in two rape victims are under age 18; one in six are under age 12. (Child Rape Victims, 1992. U.S. Department of Justice.)
About half of all rape victims are in the lowest third of income distribution; half are in the upper two-thirds. (Violence against Women, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Justice, 1994.)
There were 71 forcible rapes per 100,000 females reported to United States law enforcement agencies in 1996. 2
Data from the National Women's Study, a longitudinal telephone survey of a national household probability sample of women at least 18 years of age, show 683,000 women forcibly raped each year and that 84% of rape victims did not report the offense to the police.3
Using Uniform Crime Report data for 1994 and 1995, the Bureau of Justice Statistics found that of rape victims who reported the offense to law enforcement, about 40% were under the age of 18, and 15% were younger than 12.4
In a national survey 27.7% of college women reported a sexual experience since the age of fourteen that met the legal definition of rape or attempted rape, and 7.7% of college men reported perpetrating aggressive behavior which met the legal definition of rape.5
The National Crime Victimization Survey indicates that for 1992-1993, 92% of rapes were committed by known assailants.1 About half of all rapes and sexual assaults against women are committed by friends and acquaintances, and 26% are by intimate partners.1
Risk factors for perpetrating sexual violence include: early sexual experience (both forced and voluntary),6 adherence by men to sex role stereotyping,7,8 negative attitudes of men towards women,6,9,,10,11,12, alcohol consumption,8,13 acceptance of rape myths by men.8,9,12,14,15
Non-forceful verbal resistance and lack of resistance are associated with rape completion.1,6
The adult pregnancy rate associated with rape is estimated to be 4.7%. This information, in conjunction with estimates based on the U.S. Census, suggest that there may be 32,101 annual rape-related pregnancies among American women over the age of 18.17
Non-genital physical injuries occur in approximately 40% of completed rape cases.18 As many as 3% of all rape cases have non-genital injuries requiring overnight hospitalization.19
Victims of rape often manifest long-term symptoms of chronic headaches,18,20fatigue20, sleep disturbance20, recurrent nausea,20 decreased appetite,21 eating disorders,22 menstrual pain,18 sexual dysfunction,23 and suicide attempts.21 In a longitudinal study, sexual assault was found to increase the odds of substance abuse by a factor of 2.5.24
Estimates of the occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases resulting from rape range from 3.6% to 30%.18,22 HIV transmission risk rate from rape is estimated at 1 in 500,22,25 although a few probable cases have been documented in Sweden and Great Britain. 26,27
Victims of marital or date rape are 11 times more likely to be clinically depressed, and 6 times more likely to experience social phobia than are non-victims. Psychological problems are still evident in cases as long as 15 years after the assault.28
Fatalities occur in about 0.1% of all rape cases.29,30
A study examining the use of health services over a five year period by female members of a health maintenance program found that the number of visits to physicians by rape victims increased 56% in the year following the crime, compared to a 2% utilization increase by non-victims.31
The National Public Services Research Institute estimates the lifetime cost for each rape with physical injuries which occurred in 1987 to be $60,000.32 The Comfort Women : Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War .
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999) estimated that 91% of rape victims are female and 9% are male, with 99% of the offenders being male.
Some types of rape are excluded from official reports altogether, (the FBI's definition for example excludes all rapes except forcible rapes of females), because a significant number of rapes go unreported even when they are included as reportable rapes, and also because a significant number of rapes reported to the police do not advance to prosecution.
According to United States Department of Justice document Criminal Victimization in the United States, there were overall 191,670 victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2005.
Only 16% of rapes and sexual assaults are reported to the police (Rape in America: A Report to the Nation. 1992 and United Nations Populations Fund, 2000a).Factoring in unreported rapes, about 5% of rapists will ever spend a day in jail. 1 of 6 U.S. women has experienced an attempted or completed rape. More than a quarter of college age women report having experienced a rape or rape attempt since age 14.
The U.S. Department of Justice compiles statistics on crime by race, but only between and among people categorized as black or white. It should be noted that the "white" category in the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) includes non-black Hispanics. There were 194,270 white and 17,920 black victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2006. Out of the 194,270 cases involving white victims, 50.6% had white offenders and 16.7% had black offenders, while the 36,620 black victims had a figure of 43% black offenders, the remaining being of other or unreported race, with a negligible number of white offenders. Gary LaFree's rape data for the 45-year period revealed that blacks were arrested for rape an average of 6.52 times more often than whites.
Drug use, especially alcohol, is frequently involved in rape. A study (only of rape victims that were female and reachable by phone) reported detailed findings related to tactics. In 47% of such rapes, both the victim and the perpetrator had been drinking. In 17%, only the perpetrator had been. 7% of the time, only the victim had been drinking. Rapes where neither the victim nor the perpetrator had been drinking were 29% of all rapes. Contrary to widespread belief, rape outdoors is rare. Over two thirds of all rapes occur in someone's home. 31% occur in the perpetrators' homes, 27% in the victims' homes and 10% in homes shared by the victim and perpetrator. 7% occur at parties, 7% in vehicles, 4% outdoors and 2% in bars.From 2000-2005, 59% of rapes were not reported to law enforcement. One factor relating to this is misconception that most rapes are committed by strangers.
The most frequently cited research was conducted by Statistics Canada in 1992, which involved a national random sample of 12,300 women (Johnson and Sacco, 1995). The research found that over one in three women had experienced a sexual assault[dubious discuss] and that only 6% of sexual assaults were reported to the police.
The Australian Women's Safety Survey conducted by the Bureau of Statistics in 1996 involved a random sample 6,300 women aged 18 and over. It produced incidence finding of 1.9 per cent for sexual assault in the previous 12 months. Known men accounted for over two-thirds of assailants (68%). Only 15% of the assaulted women in the sample reported to the police.
According to a news report on BBC One presented in 12 November 2007, there were 85,000 women raped in the UK in the previous year, equating to about 230 cases every day. According to that report one of every 200 women in the UK was raped in 2006. The report also showed that only 800 persons were convicted in rape crimes that same year.
In Cambodia, rape is estimated by local and international NGOs to be common , but only a very small minority of these assaults are ever reported to authorities, due to the social stigma associated to being the victim of a sexual crime, and, in particular, to losing virginity before marriage (regardless of how this happened). From November 2008 to November 2009, police had recorded 468 cases of rape, attempted rape and sexual harassment, a 2.4 percent increase over the previous year. Breaking the Silence Sexual Violence in Cambodia is a report produced by Amnesty International, and released in 2010, which examined the situation of sexual violence in Cambodia. The report found that, in the small minority of rapes which are reported, a very common response is for law-enforcement officials, including police and court staff, to arrange extralegal out-of-court 'agreements' between the victim and the perpetrator (or their families), in which the rapist pays a sum of money which is shared between the authorithies and the victm (and her family), after which the victim has to withdraw any criminal complaint against the perpetrator, and public prosecutors close the case. When a rape is investigated, a complainant is generally expected to pay an extralegal sum of money to the authorities, to ensure that the court investigates the case, othrerwise progress is slow, and it may take over two years for anything to happen. During the pre-trial period, there is allways a risk that the perpetrators family will pay a bribe to secure his acquittal or reduced charge.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In eastern Congo, the prevalence and intensity of rape and other sexual violence is described as the worst in the world. It is estimated that there are as many as 200,000 surviving rape victims living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today. War rape in the Democratic Republic of Congo has frequently been described as a "weapon of war" by commentators. Louise Nzigire, a local social worker, states that this violence was designed to exterminate the population. Nzigire observes that rape has been a "cheap, simple weapon for all parties in the war, more easily obtainable than bullets or bombs."